|Spoken by:||190 million|
Portuguese is spoken by about 170 million people, mainly in Portugal and the Portuguese Atlantic islands, Brazil, and Portugal's former overseas provinces in Africa and Asia.
See separate page on Portuguese.
The brazilian portuguese alphabet consists of 26 letters: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y and z. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u. The letters k, w and y are the least used, only appearing in foreign languages words. There are variations of the vowels, the accents (á, à, ã, é, í, ó, õ, ú) and a c with cedile, the ç.
Common difficulties Edit
- Phonology: Nasal vowels and rhotics ; Raising vowels to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables: to know the right time to raise /a ɛ e ɔ o/ to [ɐ e i ɨ o u].
- Orthography: the grave accent on an a, known as crase ( à ) ; the words porquê, porque, por que, por quê; the sibilants.
- Grammar: verb tenses and gender inflections. Oblique case pronouns.
The following resources are all available for free online.
- Foreign Service Institute course
- Portuguese - English dictionary
- Portuguese dictionary
- Verb conjugator
- Beginner Podcasts (includes downloadable PDF transcripts and mp3s, as well as comparisons with Spanish phonetics and grammar): Tá Falado
- Intermediate/advanced podcasts: Podcast Café Brazil
- Intermediate/advanced video series with transcripts and grammar explanations: ClicaBrasil
- Listening practice for intermediate/advanced: Conversa Brasileira
- Blog about learning Portuguese: Hacking Portuguese (includes more explanatory articles and links to other resources)
- Free lessons with interesting content are available at GLOSS, but some minimal prior knowledge is needed unless you speak Spanish.
- The podcast Tá Falado .
- Duolingo offers a course in Portuguese.
There are some Assimil courses for lear
Brazilian Portuguese, but they are in French. See them here.
There is also a Pimsleur course.
For Portuguese learners with some knowledge of Spanish, the following resources will be especially helpful.
Antônio Roberto Monteiro Simões, Pois não: Brazilian Portuguese Course for Spanish Speakers, with Basic Reference Grammar (2008). 598 pp.
Rosetta Stone offers a course in Brazilian Portuguese.