|Spoken by:||9.1 million|
|Spoken in:||In Spain:
the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Valencia, Aragon (in La Franja), Murcia (in Carxe).
Catalan has five orthographic vowels: a, e, i, o, u. These correspond to seven vowel phonemes: /a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ, u/ and eight allophones: [a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ, u, ə].
a is pronounced [a] in stressed syllables, [ə] in unstressed syllables.
e is pronounced [e] or [ɛ] in stressed syllables. When the e is unaccented, there is no rule for telling which one it is, but é is always [e] and è is always [ɛ]. In unstressed syllables, it is pronounced [ə].
i is always pronounced [i].
o is pronounced [o] or [ɔ] is stressed syllables. When the o is unaccented, there is no rule for telling which one it is, but ó is always [o] and ò is always [ɔ]. In unstressed syllables, it is pronounced [u].
u is always pronounced [u].
Catalan uses the Roman alphabet: a (à), b, c, ç, d, e (è, é), f, g, h, i (í), j, k, l, m, n, o (ò, ó), p, q, r, s, t, u (ú), v, w, x, y, z
In addition, the following digraphs are used:
ll: a voiced palatal lateral in most dialects
l·l: /l:/, although many pronounce simply /l/
rr: /r/ (the sound that occurs when rolling your tongue)
ss: always /s/, never /z/
ny: like Spanish ñ, or in English "canyon"
tx: like 'ch' in Spanish
ix: like 'sh' in English
ig: like 'ch' in English
qu: before e, i it's /k/, elsewhere it's /kw/
gu: before e, i pronounced /g/, elsewhere /gw/
In most dialects, 'b' and 'v' have merged to /b/.
'c' is pronounced /s/ before 'e' and 'i', /k/ elsewhere.
'g' is pronounced like in English "triage" before 'e' and 'i', /g/ elsewhere.
'h' is not pronounced in native words.
'j' is pronounced like the 'g' in English "triage".
's' is voiced to /z/ between vowels.
Common difficulties Edit
Like other Romance languages, Catalan makes active use of the subjunctive mood.
There are two verbs for 'to be': 'ser' and 'estar' (although they are not necessarily used in the same way as Spanish 'ser' and 'estar).
Most of the grammar will be familiar for those who speak Spanish, but there is a notable exception: the weak pronouns 'en', 'hi' and 'ho'.
Basic Phrases Edit
Good morning--Bon dia
Good afternoon--Bona tarda
Good evening--Bona vespre
Good night--Bona nit
You're welcome--De res
What's you're name?--Com et dius?
Pleased to meet you--Encantat/Encantada
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