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Catalan
Spoken by: 9.1 million
Spoken in: In Spain:

the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Valencia, Aragon (in La Franja), Murcia (in Carxe).
In France: Pyrénées-Orientales (Catalunya Nord/le Pays Catalan). In Italy (Sardinia): The city of Alghero.

In Andorra.
Language family: Romance


Phonology Edit

Catalan has five orthographic vowels: a, e, i, o, u. These correspond to seven vowel phonemes: /a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ, u/ and eight allophones: [a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ, u, ə].

a is pronounced [a] in stressed syllables, [ə] in unstressed syllables.

e is pronounced [e] or [ɛ] in stressed syllables. When the e is unaccented, there is no rule for telling which one it is, but é is always [e] and è is always [ɛ]. In unstressed syllables, it is pronounced [ə].

i is always pronounced [i].

o is pronounced [o] or [ɔ] is stressed syllables. When the o is unaccented, there is no rule for telling which one it is, but ó is always [o] and ò is always [ɔ]. In unstressed syllables, it is pronounced [u].

u is always pronounced [u].

Grammar Edit

Orthography Edit

Catalan uses the Roman alphabet: a (à), b, c, ç, d, e (è, é), f, g, h, i (í), j, k, l, m, n, o (ò, ó), p, q, r, s, t, u (ú), v, w, x, y, z


In addition, the following digraphs are used:

ll: a voiced palatal lateral in most dialects

l·l: /l:/, although many pronounce simply /l/

rr: /r/ (the sound that occurs when rolling your tongue)

ss: always /s/, never /z/

ny: like Spanish ñ, or in English "canyon"

tx: like 'ch' in Spanish

ix: like 'sh' in English

ig: like 'ch' in English

qu: before e, i it's /k/, elsewhere it's /kw/

gu: before e, i pronounced /g/, elsewhere /gw/


In most dialects, 'b' and 'v' have merged to /b/.

'c' is pronounced /s/ before 'e' and 'i', /k/ elsewhere.

'g' is pronounced like in English "triage" before 'e' and 'i', /g/ elsewhere.

'h' is not pronounced in native words.

'j' is pronounced like the 'g' in English "triage".

's' is voiced to /z/ between vowels.


Common difficulties Edit

Like other Romance languages, Catalan makes active use of the subjunctive mood.

There are two verbs for 'to be': 'ser' and 'estar' (although they are not necessarily used in the same way as Spanish 'ser' and 'estar).

Most of the grammar will be familiar for those who speak Spanish, but there is a notable exception: the weak pronouns 'en', 'hi' and 'ho'.

Basic Phrases Edit

Hello--Hola

Good morning--Bon dia

Good afternoon--Bona tarda

Good evening--Bona vespre

Good night--Bona nit

Goodbye--Adéu

Thank you--Gràcies/Merci

You're welcome--De res

What's you're name?--Com et dius?

Pleased to meet you--Encantat/Encantada

ResourcesEdit

Teach Yourself Catalan (English based)

Assimil El catalán sin esfuerzo (Spanish based)

Digui, digui (Catalan based)

Parla.cat (Official Course, Multi-Language based)

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