Irish [Gaeilge] (which is always called Irish in English, never Gaelic or Irish Gaelic), is a Celtic language spoken as an everyday language by about 80,000-100,000 people and about 2,500,000 people speak it to some extent. It is primarily spoken in Ireland. But due to the Irish diaspora small communities speak it all across the globe from Australia to the America. It bares a lot of similarites to Scots Gaelic and Manx .
Irish consonants come in pairs, they are always either "broad" (velarise , pronounced with the back of the tongue pulled back towards the soft palate) or "slender" (palatised, pronounced with the middle of the tongue pushed up towards the hard palate).". This is not unique to Irish, Russian also uses a similar method. Many of these sounds exist in English, but they are much more important in Irish. Here is an IPA chart of all the sounds [Used from Wikipedia ]
Irish is VSO language, meaning that the word order is Verb-Subject-Object. Unlike, English which is a SVO language (Subject-Verb-Object). Adjectives usually follow their noun except for a few which are suffixes. For example
An madra bheag - The small dog [lit. The-dog-small]
Tá an madra ró-bheag - The dog is too small [lit. Is-the-dog-too-small]
There is also the copula, which is a form of the verb to be when we are showing two nouns are equal, for example;
Tá an cailín anseo - The girl is here [lit. Is-the-girl-here]
Is cailín í - She is a girl [lit. Is-girl-she]
Irish is an infelcted language and has three cases; nominative, genitive and vocative. How the nouns change much be learned off by heart because the rules are quite vague. Often the pronunciation is the same, for example;
Spórt - Sport (pron. "sport")
Halla spóirt - Sport's hall (hawl-ah sport)
But sometimes the pronunciation changes a lot:
An lá - The day (pron. on law)
I rith an lae - During the day (i ri on lay)
In Irish many prepostitions such as do, ag and roimh change when one of the subjects come after them. For example; do means to. But we don't say do mé (to me), we say dom.