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Latin
Spoken by: extinct
Spoken in: the Vatican City
Language family: italic


Latin, called and spelled lingua Latina or lingua latina (pronounced LING-gwa la-TEE-na) in Latin, is an ancient language spoken by the ancient Roman people from the Roman Empire (Imperium Latinum), and also a culturally important language. It is useful in the study of classics.

There are three common forms of Latin learned and studied today.

Classical is the most common, it is the version used in education, examinations and in the subject "Classics"; it is reconstructed from Roman literature. Second is ecclesiastical Latin which is the Latin used in Catholic liturgy and spoken in the Vatican; it is grammatically classical but has significantly different phonology. Vulgate Latin is used exclusively to understand the Vulgate Bible and other pre-medieval historical sources.

Phonology Edit

Vocals Edit

Reconstructed Classical Latin has six vowels: a, e, i, o, u, and y. A is pronounced like the a in "alot", e like the e in "entity", i like the i in "in", o like the o in "oracle", u like the u-sound in "boot", and y is difficult to explain in English because English doesn't have any equivalent. Even many other languages do not have this sound. Y lies near the sound of Latin i, like in Modern Greek poly (meaning "very"), and Swedish sy (meaning "to sew").

Consonants Edit

Reconstructed Classical Latin has these consonants with the following pronounciation, similar to the pronounciation of the English consonants. Shown in alpabetical order:

  • b - Like the b-sound in "be".
  • c - Like the k-sound in "can".
  • d - Like the d-sound in "day".
  • f - Like the f-sound in "friend".
  • g - Like the g-sound in "go".
  • h - Like the h-sound in "here".
  • k - This letter has the same pronounciation as Latin c.
  • l - Like the l-sound in "life".
  • m - Like the l-sound in "many".
  • n - Like the n-sound in "no".
  • p - Like the p-sound in "place".
  • q - q is only used in combination with u as qu, and is then always followed by another vocal so it becomes qua, que, qui, quo, or quu. Example of Latin words: aqua, "water", consequentia, "consequens", quintus, "fifth".
  • r - a thrilling r.
  • s - like the s-sound in "send".
  • t - like the t-sound in "tell".
  • v - The ancient Latin letter for the Latin u-sound and the Latin w/v-sound had the same symbol: V. It is believed that Latin had w-sound instead of v-sound because of weak evidence we have found. But it's not certain, because a w-sound does not match the other Latin sounds, and make Latin sound strange. So logically, it could be v-sound instead. For the Latin u-sound it's like in English "boot", and for the v-sound it's like in English "victory", and for the w-sound it's like in English "wind".
  • x - The x-sound is a combination of a k-sound and an s-sound, sounding like ks, like in the English "hexagon".
  • z - The z-sound was probably like ts, like in the English "the monkey hits the ground".

Grammar Edit

MorphologyEdit

Latin is a language that is very inflection rich and will take alot of time to lean properly.

NounsEdit

Five declensions.

AdjectivesEdit

VerbsEdit

Four conjugations.

SyntaxEdit

Orthography Edit

Common difficulties Edit

  • Speaking extinct languages requires more direction than living ones.
  • Many inflections.

Resources Edit

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