Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language learning technique developed by Dr. James Asher that is meant to force the learner to deal with the [target language] from the beginning without having to resort to translation. In practice, it is similar to an extended game of Simon Says. The language learner hears and reacts to commands in their target L2, generally with physical movements or concrete actions.
Many experts recognize that TPR is generally best used for teaching beginning language students.
See the complete Wikipedia:Total Physical Response page for more details.