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Turkish (Türkçe)
Spoken by: ~ 70 million
Spoken in: Turkey
Language family: Altaic

Turkish is a branch of the Turkic language family and is spoken as an official language by about 70 million people in Turkey and in Northern Cyprus.

Phonology Edit

Grammar Edit

Orthography Edit

Common difficulties Edit

The Foreign Service Institute has classified Turkish as a "Hard" language. It is estimated that learning Turkish to a Professional Working Proficiency in the language (a score of Speaking-3/Reading-3 on the Interagency Language Roundtable scale) will take an average of 44 weeks (1100 class hours).[1]

Resources Edit

There is an Foreign Service Institute course for Turkish.

There is a Duolingo course for Turkish.

Two online dictionaries: Turkish Dictionary (site in English) and Yeminli Sözlük (site in Turkish). 

Manisa Turkish has clear grammar explanations and examples.

Pimsleur's Turkish I is a 30-lesson audio course. 

Sublearning - Turkish to English movie subtitle flash cards

Rosetta Stone offers a course in Turkish

Beginner to intermediate textbooks: Edit

Asuman Çelen Pollard and David Pollard, Teach Yourself Turkish (2004). 270 pp.

Ad Backus and Jeroen Aarssen, Colloquial Turkish (2000). 352 pp. 

The Yeni Hitit series of textbooks has three levels. 

For advanced learners: Edit

Geoffrey Lewis, Turkish Grammar (2001). 328 pp. 

References Edit

  1. U.S. Department of State; FSI's Experience with Language Learning; https://www.state.gov/m/fsi/sls/c78549.htm